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Water Treatment Processes

Water treatment refers to different processes that are used to improve the quality of water. Water resources all over the world are contaminated with garbage and other pollutants and become unfit for consumption. Therefore water treatment is necessary to improve the quality of water and to avoid the spread of water borne diseases.

The different types of water treatment processes are:

  •        Coagulation or Flocculation
  • ·      Filtration
  • ·      Sedimentation
  • ·      Distillation
  • ·      Fluoridation
  • ·      pH Correction

Coagulation or Flocculation:

In this process of water treatment liquid aluminium sulfate is added to the water. When liquid aluminium sulfate is added to the water, impurities of dirt particles in the water start to stick together. As the dirt particles start to stick together they form larger and heavier dirt particles called flocs. The flocs are then removed through a process of filtration.


 The floc particles are then removed from the water through sedimentation. This is a process where the water is allowed to flow slowly and the floc particles that are heavy settle at the bottom.


In this process water is allowed to flow through a filter that is designed to remove dirt particles from the water.  There are layers of sand and gravel or crushed anthracite in the filter. This process collects suspended impurities in the water.  


Water can be disinfected by adding a disinfectant like chlorine to the water. Disinfection helps avoid water borne diseases from spreading.   Chlorine or Chloramine kills disease causing germs such as salmonella, campylobacter and norovirus.  Disinfection is a process that is done before the water is sent out into the distribution system. 


It is the process of adding fluorides to the water; this process is done before the water is released into the distribution system, and it helps reduce tooth decay of the general population.  Adjusting the concentration of the free fluoride ion to the optimum level reduces tooth decay.

pH Correction:

pH indicates whether the water is acidic or alkaline. The pH scales ranges from 0 to 14.  If the value is greater than 7, it indicates alkalinity and if the pH level is lower than 7 the water is acidic.  In this process lime is added to filtered water to adjust the pH levels. When pH levels are lower it minimizes the corrosion levels in the distribution system.     

For your homes or swimming pools you could also get the water treated by contacting companies that specialize in water treatment


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